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Patterns in the Palimpsest

Many of my friends and colleagues have found themselves confronted with tweets, facebook messages or e-mails which usually consist of: “I’VE FOUND ANOTHER PARK!”

Whilst the response from my fellow academics is usually “Excellent!”, those not so familiar with this kind of landscape research tend to ask “How?”. So, in this blog post I thought I’d explain some of the methods used to find and identify a park as medieval and then attempt to place it in its context.

Cambridge University Library has one of five known sets of proof maps prepared for John Speed’s ‘Theatre of the Empire of Great Britaine’, which was published in 1611/12, and they are available to view online at: http://www.lib.cam.ac.uk/deptserv/maps/speed.html

Below is an extract taken from the map of Denbighshire showing the area around Wrexham, North East Wales (Latitude 53.045083; Longitude -2.9931521).

Abenbury

As you can see, there are two parks marked on the map, one of them ‘Holt Park’, but the second has no information provided for its location other than it is to the east of Wrexham. At this time the castle at Holt and its attendant town were the most important focal point for the administration of the area, whist Wrexham was a town in all but name (Wrexham was awarded its borough charter in 1857, whilst the borough of Holt was dissolved in 1886). My blog post on the excavations at Holt Castle can be found here: https://medievalparksgardensanddesignedlandscapes.wordpress.com/2013/07/26/the-boss-with-apologies-to-bruce-springsteen/

Whilst the medieval landscape of Holt has seen some academic research, the history of the park to the east of Wrexham is a little more enigmatic. The map shows that it has a very straight western boundary, and this equates to the very straight edge of the park known today as Cefn Park.

Cefn Park Map

Map of Cefn Park

Cefn Park AP

Aerial Photograph of Cefn Park

The Park is now divided into two separate estates, known as Cefn Park and Llwyn Onn. The majority of the papers relating to the estates were either lost in a fire in the house of Cefn Park, and those that do survive only extend back to the Eighteenth Century. All three depictions of Cefn Park show it as an being roughly oval in shape. This is usually an indicator that a park was laid out in the medieval period, but is it possible to be more precise with a date?

At the Marford bailiwick court held on 5 October 1333 the jurors referred back to the time when Roger de Kettley, chief forester, ‘took all the wood of Glyn, which was previously common, into a fenced enclosure for the lord’. The ‘wood of Glyn’ is now the part of the park around the National Trust property of Erddig Hall http://www.nationaltrust.org.uk/erddig/

This suggests then that a new park was required by the English Lord of Bromfield and Yale at Glyn, which is close to the former motte and bailey castle of ‘Wristleham’ (Wrexham), recorded as being in existence in 1161. This, along with a new park laid out at Holt (and recorded on the John Speed map) indicates a considerable reorganisation of the landscape.

The question therefore, is where is Cefn Park in the records of the period? The Extant of Bromfield and Yale, taken in 1315 for the new English Lord describing who owed what service to the him after he had replaced the Welsh Prince following the Edwardian Conquest of 1282-1283, appears to contain the answer.

Cefn Park is in Abenbury, and the ‘Extent’ records that it is held by Griffi ap Ior, Griff ap Hwfa, Ienna ap Hwfa and Griff ap Ior Fychan (‘ap’ is son of, Fychan is ‘little’ or ‘junior’), except one-fifth which is held from the Queen (the wife of Edward II).

These men, and their ancestors, appear to have held the land in return for carrying out services including supplying grain, gathering nuts and making and repairing some of the buildings required by the lordship administrators. All of these services needed land, and it appear then that Cefn Park was no longer a hunting park of the Princes of Powys, but had been ‘disparked’ and put to use supplying these resources.

It kept its western boundary as this was the division between it and the pasture owned by the Abbey at Valle Crucis, which they had been gifted in 1202 and the charter for which still survives.

How much older than 1202 then is Cefn Park? At the moment I’ve exhausted the sources available to me, so I suspect that archaeological excavation of the park, either its boundaries or any identifiable internal features may provide the answer.

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Taking Stock…

It has been a month since I set up my gofundme page at: http://www.gofundme.com/medievalgardensandparks and in that time 25 people have donated £620 – almost a third of my target. I’m incredibly grateful to everyone who has donated and hope that the next few months will be as successful in helping me reach my target and complete my research.

I start next month at Manchester Metropolitan University, and I’m really looking forward to being able to fully access a learning environment again. Since 2007, when I suspended my studies at the University of East Anglia in order to get a full time job after first being made redundant and then working on a short contract writing a book, it has been difficult operating on the periphery of academia looking in.

During the intervening period I’ve seen fellow PhD students who began their research at the same time as me complete their studies and secure teaching posts. They have been unfailing in their support for me and my lonely niche furrow!

When I’ve been able to attend conferences in this intervening period I’ve met students from Universities all over Europe, North America and Australasia involved in unpicking the various strands of history and archaeology, and seeing how all our individual stories weave together to help understand the medieval world (and beyond).

Peacock displaying 2 24.04.05

Peacock at Cardiff Castle – one of the photographs that reminds me how diverse my topic is

I hope the blog to date has provided you with some food for thought, and in case you haven’t seen the other work I’ve written recently, you might want to have a look at:

http://beyondborders-medievalblog.blogspot.co.uk/2013/08/love-like-hare-monuments-and.html
Where I discuss (very briefly) the research I’ve been undertaking on Medieval Grave Slabs and the Poetry connected to them.

and:

http://www.anthropologiesproject.org/2013/07/one-mans-pieces-of-war.html
Which is something I am working on with my family to turn a series of photographs, letters and other ephemera into a book on my Taid’s (paternal grandfather’s) experiences in World War II.

I hope you enjoy the blog, and if you want to donate to help support my research in North Wales and North West Shropshire, thank you.

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Our Dark Garden

With due deference to everyone who has tweeted, retweeted, donated or sent best wishes to me and my quest for PhD funding, I thought that this blog post should talk about some of the medieval gardens I’ve been researching, and the variety of sources available for such a study.

The earliest contemporary written evidence for the creation of gardens in Wales is to be found in the biography of a twelfth century king, Gruffydd ap Cynan, of the Welsh kingdom of Gwynedd. The Historia Gruffud vab Kenan says:

‘Then he increased all manner of good in Gwynedd, and the inhabitants began to build churches in every direction therein, and to plant the old woods and to make orchards and gardens, and surround them with walls and ditches, and to construct walled buildings, and to support themselves from the fruit of the earth after the fashion of the Romans’.

Some evidence for this reorganisation and improvement of Gwynedd has been identified, most recently by David Longley, and his research into the medieval landscape of the island of Anglesey. However, there are problems which mean that further work is still needed.

Archaeological excavations of medieval high status sites in Wales have tended to be small in scale, and to date very few high-status Llys (Royal Court) sites have been excavated. Exacerbating this is the fact that only some of the Llys site locations are known, as they fell out of use during the fourteenth century because they were no longer needed by the new administration.

The Edwardian castle at Rhuddlan (Latitude 53.288595; Longitude -3.463749) serves to highlight some of the issues which I have encountered during my research.

This castle was constructed from 1277 onwards to replace an earlier motte and bailey castle on a nearby site to the south, which in turn replaced a Llys, the location of which is most probably under the motte and bailey earthworks.

DI2010_1781

Crown Copyright DI2010_1781
The motte and bailey castle is in the trees to the right of the image.

Edward I, as part of the provision for his wife, Eleanor of Castile, and her household, had constructed for her a garden within the castle precinct between July 1282 and March 1284. The location for this has been suggested as within the inner courtyard of the castle, where it would have been overlooked by the Royal apartments.

The documentation states that encircling the head of the castle well (which had a boarded roof), a little fishpond lined with four cartloads of clay brought from the nearby Rhuddlan marsh was created and set around with seats. The adjacent courtyard was laid with 6000 turves and the lawn fenced with the staves of discarded casks.

Rhuddlan Castle was taken into state care in the twentieth century and following World War II conservation works were carried out. As part of the conservation works the moat was emptied:

DI2010_2242

Crown Copyright DI2010_2242
Excavation of the moat in 1949.

Unfortunately I have not been able to find any archaeological documentation to accompany the photographs taken, meaning any environmental evidence, including medieval plants, which may have existed within the moat has now been lost. In addition, there has been no programme of survey or excavation within the inner courtyard of castle, meaning that the location of the garden and fishpond is not conclusively identified.

During my research, I re-examined the historical sources, and found mention of a second garden at Rhuddlan Castle in 1285. This was described as a herber (a pleasure garden) opposite the north gate of the castle, and significantly, outside of the castle precinct. Fieldwork I undertook earlier this year suggests that this herber lay within the ditch to the north of the castle and may well have been accessible from the River Clwyd immediately to the west. The location of the herber is at the bottom left of the first photograph under the trees.

Further research of sites such as the Edwardian Castle of Rhuddlan will revolve around planning the best recording strategies for these two garden locations, whether that is deemed to be survey or excavation. Given that there is in close proximity an earlier motte and bailey and a Llys site, both of which are likely to have gardens of one form or another associated with them, there is exceptional potential for understanding the change and development of Royal gardening taste of both English and Welsh Royalty during the medieval period.

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Park it like you stole from it…

The blog is a day later than usual – but that because the story of this current blog post has only just come to an end.

I had a day off last Monday, and I used it to visit two archaeological exacavations happening 10 minutes away from where I live. Both are on prehistoric hillforts, and both are fascinating.

I’ll confess now to a previous life as a prehistorian – I spent 4 years at Bournemouth University as part of the ‘Billown Neolithic Landscape Project’ on the Isle of Man. I learnt so much about looking at, and interpreting a landscape without documents – which can be a bit like looking for medieval deer parks in North Wales – relying on the palimpest of landscape features to guide your thought process.

The excavations at Moel y Gaer, Bodfari (Latitude 53.226804; Longitude -3.357079) by the University of Oxford: http://www.arch.ox.ac.uk/bodfari.html and Penycloddiau (Latitude 53.198650; Longitude -3.306009) by the University of Liverpool: http://www.liv.ac.uk/sace/resource/LAFS_report_2012.htm are excellent examples of where archaeologists working in different disciplines can assist each other in interpreting a site.

I’m interested whether the prehistoric hillforts found themselves an afterlife as animal enclosures in the medieval period, see my blog post: https://medievalparksgardensanddesignedlandscapes.wordpress.com/2013/07/08/archaeological-arrogance/ for the re-use of Parc-y-Meirch / Dinorben as a medieval horse park.

So far I have at least three hillforts where I can attest their re-use, either from historical or archaeological sources.

By the same token, the prehistorians are interested in what happened to their sites after they went out of use as hillforts. It’s early days in understanding the later use of Penycloddiau and Moel-y-Gaer, Bodfari, but the archaeologists could not have been more helpful.

While this was happening, my crowdfunding PhD page was attracting the attention of the media. The Daily Post, a newspaper which covers North Wales ran this story: http://www.dailypost.co.uk/news/local-news/archaeologist-crowd-sourcing-donation-internet-5378330 and the BBC ran this story: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-wales-north-west-wales-23458968 about my discovery of a medieval deer park at Brynkir (Latitude 52.967469; Longitude -4.197846) (but unfortunately left out my name as the finder)…

Thanks to the generosity of the media in running the story, the funders who have made sure I’ve already made it to 1/8th of my required total: http://www.gofundme.com/medievalgardensandparks and fellow archaeologists for allowing me to visit their excavations I’ve enjoyed a positive week – with the final part coming at 7:55 this morning when I was interviewed on BBC Radio Cymru (the Welsh Language radio station) about the work at Brynkir Medieval park.

Let’s see what happens next.